January 11, 1520 – Magellan Arrives at the Rio de la Plata

Magellan’s little armada had a pleasant two week cruise southward along the coast to recover from Rio’s bacchanals. It arrived January 11, 1520 at the Rio de la Plata, the immense estuary of the Parana and Uruguay Rivers now bounded by Argentina on the south and Uruguay on the north. This coast was well known to the Portuguese and Spanish, so he sailed by day and night. After Rio de la Plata, he would anchor each night for fear of missing the passage to the Indies in the darkness.

The Portuguese and Spanish had already explored Rio de la Plata, with the Portuguese first arriving some ten years earlier. Magellan likely had access to their finding. The Spanish came briefly in 1516 when Pilot Major of Spain Juan Diaz de Solis explored it with a small three-ship expedition. Their stay was cut short when de Solis and some of his men were killed, and eaten, by the locals. This event dampened the remaining sailors’ interest in further exploration and they returned to Spain.

So Magellan had some knowledge of the Rio de la Plata, but evidently felt that he couldn’t rule out its being the elusive pass to the Indies. He spent five precious weeks of southern hemisphere summer exploring the huge estuary, including sending his smallest ship to explore the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. That took fifteen days. Finally, his ships watered and headed south.
The time spent wasn’t without incident. They survived one gale, met the local natives without incident, repaired the leaky San Antonio, and lost two men. One of these died in a brawl. The other, the sole Irishman of the armada, one Guillen, William, drowned. Probably William, like most sailors of his time couldn’t swim.

I find it somewhat surprising that Magellan spent so long exploring the Rio de la Plata, as one would think its brackish and fresh water would rule it out as a salt-water passage to the Indies. Evidently Magellan didn’t feel any urgency to take advantage of the good summer sailing weather. Perhaps he had reason to believe the passage he sought was not much further south. It wasn’t.

The armada sailed south on February 6, 1520. Soon they’d be battered by horrific storms, all the while seeing no sign of a westward passage. Less than two months later Magellan had to admit that it was too late in the season to sail further. Ironically, Magellan wintered less than a week’s sail from the Straits of Magellan. Had he spent a few weeks less in the Rio de la Plata, he could have emerged into the Pacific Ocean months earlier, and avoided mutiny and a bitter winter in Patagonia.

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Rio – Party, Execution, and Seeds of Mutiny – December 16-26, 1519

The ten days Magellan’s Armada of the Moluccas spent in Rio de Janeiro was one long party interrupted by an execution and more tension between Magellan and the Spanish Captains. The fleet arrived on December 16, 1519 to what was then a sleepy native village. After two and half months at sea the men were eager for alcohol and sex, and they got their fill of both.

The Portuguese had discover Rio some twenty years before, but only visited periodically to obtain rosewood, Aniba rosaeodora, for its oil and dye. This wood is different than the beautiful rosewood used in furniture. One of Magellan’s pilots, Carvalho, had previously spent four years there and had left behind a young son by a local woman.

Rio couldn’t have been more different than Europe. The weather was warm and the alcohol cheap. But the biggest shock was the women were naked and willing to sell their bodies for almost, for the perspective of the sailors, nothing. A week long orgy ensued, which Magellan did nothing to stop. This would be a pattern around the globe. The randy Europeans would wear out their welcomes, at least with the local men, with their bacchanals.

There was one sobering event, the execution of Antonio Salomon, the master of the Victoria, who’d been caught committing a homosexual act in the doldrums. Salomon was ceremoniously garroted with all in attendance. At this time, garroting was a favorite method of execution for the Spanish. Salomon sat in a chair while a rope was tightened around his death. Unlike a properly done hanging, where death comes swiftly after the neck is broken, with the garrote death comes slowly from asphyxiation.

Inevitably, the drunken orgies produced more trouble. While Magellan tolerated the common sailors’ behavior, he expected his officers would do better. When his brother-in-law, Duarte Barbosa, went on a bender, Magellan had him brought back in chains. This was especially unfortunate as Barbosa was Magellan’s most capably ally with experience in the Portuguese Indies spice trade.

Probably the most important developments in Rio was that Magellan managed to further infuriate the Spanish captains as well as his Portuguese Pilot Major, while promoting an inept member of his own clique. The somewhat complicated details of this follow. Captain de Coca, who had replaced Cartagena in the doldrums as captain of the San Antonio. De Coca was to keep Cartagena in custody, but he let Cartagena ashore, which infuriated Magellan. In retribution Magellan removed de Coca as captain. The two men most deserving the captaincy of the San Antonio were probably Barbosa and Pilot Major Gomez. However, Barbosa was in chains, and there must have been bad blood between Magellan and Gomes. (In competition with Magellan, Gomez had proposed an expedition to the Moluccas to King Charles.) Magellan appointed de Mesquita, his cousin, as captain. This proved unfortunate as events proved de Mesquita not quite up to the job. Furthermore, he demoted Gomez from pilot major and made him pilot of the San Antonio, probably to cover up the inadequacies of his cousin. Magellan then appointed Carvalho as Pilot Major, another unfortunate choice as Carvalho proved to have had professional and moral limitations.

The slight of Gomez and Mesquita’s inattentiveness would lead to Gomez’s later defection with the San Antonio in the Straits of Magellan, taking with it much of the fleet’s supplies. Magellan was an excellent pilot, mariner, and planner, but his mismanagement of his officers would contribute greatly to the later troubles.

 

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The Destructive Persuit of Perfection from Kristine Kathryn Rusch

I don’t do many posts about writing, but here’s one I couldn’t pass up.

Ms. Rusch is an outstanding author, teacher, and has a blog about writing and the business of writing. She did a great talk at a recent conference that I think speaks to the problems inherent in critique groups and content editors. She also describes, in ways more eloquent than I can, the reason the ‘persuit’ of perfection gets in the way of writers achieving their natural voice.

I personally found a critique group and editors valuable while I was learning the craft of writing, but, like her, found them to dull the creative process once past that stage in my writing career.

Here’s the link to her blog and the video.

My Talk On Perfection At 20Books

 

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November 29, 1519 — Brazil is Sighted

Fifty-six days after departing the Canary Islands, Brazil was sighted. The armada had survived hurricanes, the equatorial doldrums, and simmering insurrection.

Francisco Albo started his logbook on this date: “Tuesday. 29th day of November, I began to take the altitude of the sun…” Why did he wait until now? The best explanation seems to be that he was then appointed as an acting pilot. He’s documented as becoming a pilot later upon exiting the Straits of Magellan into the Pacific Ocean. These appointments are evidence of Magellan’s high regard for Albo.

Albo’s logbook and Antonio Pigafetta’s book about the circumnavigation are the most complete source documents about the circumnavigation. Doubtlessly there were many valuable papers taken by the Portuguese when they captured the Trinidad in the Spice Islands. Unfortunately, these all appear to have been destroyed in the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755. Ironically, Albo’s logbook was also almost lost. It lay unnoticed in the Spanish archives until its rediscovery in 1788.

The armada now heads south along the Brazilian coast for some much needed rest at Rio de Janeiro. There the dispute with the clique of Spanish captains will begin to fester anew.

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November 20th, 1519 – The Armada Crosses the Equator

Francisco Albo’s noon astrolabe sighting today revealed that the Armada has crossed the equator. The equatorial doldrums are finally behind the fleet. Magellan believes a current is carrying the armada westward and that Brazil is only a week or two away, although without a way to accurately fix their longitude they can’t be certain.

The crew’s spirit has risen, but nothing has been done to heal the rift between Magellan and the Spanish captains.

 

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Magellan’s Navigator Sales Hit a Milestone

magellans-navigator

The 1000th copy of Magellan’s Navigator sold today, which is a good number for an unknown author in the nautical historical fiction genre. Furthermore, sales are accelerating! Thank you readers.

Even more than the sales, I appreciate the feedback from readers, like the gentleman who wrote me last week saying that he thoroughly enjoyed Magellan’s Navigator and The King’s Galley, and that he was looking forward to the third book in the series. This book is outlined and writing has begun. I am shooting to publish it in late 2020.

Thanks again. Kenneth D. Schultz

 

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November, 1519 Off Africa…the Trouble Begins for Magellan

Tensions are high among the Armada of the Moluccas officers.

Soon after leaving the Canary Islands, Magellan altered the fleet’s course to a southerly one. Magellan has done so to avoid the Portuguese ships that wait ready to waylay him near the Cape Verdes Islands. When Cartagena, captain of the San Antonia and conjunta persona of the fleet along with Magellan, questions the course change, Magellan refuses to explain. And so begins the overt rift between Cartagena and Magellan.

The fleet initially makes good time, but after a few weeks, a series of hurricanes or tropical depressions hit it. They survive these only to become mired in the hot, humid tropical doldrums for three weeks. The ships barely move. The men are miserable. All fresh food is gone or rotten. The water becomes fetid.

Tempers flare. Cartagena refuses to make the evening salute to Magellan…which is a huge insult to these touchy Iberians. Cartagena and Magellan both stew about the offensive behavior of the other. The scene for more trouble is set when Anthony Salomon, the Sicilian master of the Victoria, is found committing sodomy with a grumete.

 Magellan will have none of that. He convenes a trial by the fleet’s officers his flagship. Salomon is sentenced to death, although not immediately executed. After the trial, the officers discuss the course and their tedious time in the doldrums. Cartagena insults Magellan, and Magellan seizes him by his shirtfront and puts him under arrest. Cartagena appeals to his fellow Spaniards for support, but they don’t move.

Magellan has Cartagena placed in stocks on the main deck…used mainly for the punishment of drunken common sailors. Many officers are aghast at this. Finally, it’s decided Cartagena will be released into the custody of Mendoza, the Spanish Captain of the Victoria. Another of the Spanish clique, de Coca, becomes captain of the San Antonio.

 Things then settle down…for now. But nothing is settled. Magellan’s mistakes will haunt him later. He could have communicated the course change more diplomatically. And then, when Cartagena is deposed, he’s placed in the custody of a confederate. It isn’t clear if de Coca was a ringleader of the Spaniards opposing Magellan, but he wasn’t definitely a friend of Magellan. In any event, Magellan should have placed his brother-in-law in charge of the San Antonio since it carried a substantial portion of the fleet’s supplies.

Finally, the equatorial current carries the fleet into the trade winds, and the fleet begins making good time towards Brazil and the next confrontation between Magellan and Cartagena.

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Thank you, The King’s Galley Reviewers

The first reviews and ratings of The King’s Galley are out on Amazon and Goodreads. It’s gotten two five star and two four star ratings plus two very thoughtful and well written reviews. Thank you readers.

I always think that I’ve written a great book, but there’s no way that I can be objective about my creation after having spent a year or more conceiving, writing, and editing it. The ratings and reviews are the final validation of my effort.

More good news is that October was the best sales month ever for Magellan’s Navigator despite its first being published in December 2016. This was due in part to a significant rise in sales in the United Kingdom and Germany.

I’ve begun work on the sequel to The King’s Galley. It’s about Albo’s adventures as a galley captain in 1524 fighting against the Ottomans. Unlike after Magellan’s Navigator, I have no other writing projects or other distractions, like moving to a new city. I reasonably expect to finish the book within a year.

Again, thank you readers.

 

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Jimmy Webb and Magellan’s Navigator

Jimmy Webb

Jimmy Webb, the legendary Grammy winning songwriter, enjoys historical fiction. The other night I gave him a copy of Magellan’s Navigator after listening to an evening of his songs and stories at Dimitriou’s Jazz Alley.

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The King’s Galley Is Published

Canny Greek Albo becomes master and pilot of a Spanish galley sailing against the infamous Barbary pirate Barbarossa. Death or enslavement will be his likely fate unless he can whip his raw crew into shape and curb the worst tendencies of his vengeful captain.

Think Master and Commander on a galley powered by sail and oar.

Two years of plotting, writing, researching, and editing are over.

I hope you enjoy it!

To buy follow this link: https://amzn.to/2ptXMzz

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